Martial Arts America, Chapter Five

Martial Arts America, Book Cover


In the evolutionary cycle of combat arts, as fighting methods evolve upward into martial arts, several changes take place. Beyond the purely technical transformations, there is the introduction of principles for governing the conduct of the practitioner. How these teachings manifest themselves in the art today – and their value to the American martial artist – is the focus of this chapter.

Capital 'F'rom the perspective of personal defense, the development of Western martial arts lagged far behind that of their Eastern counterparts. The cause of this unequal evolution is complex and beyond the scope of this chapter; however, the result is that Eastern martial arts reached a much higher developmental plane than any in the West. Not only were Eastern martial arts far ahead of the West on the physical scale, but they exceeded them in the intellectual, moral, and spiritual realm as well. This intellectual and moral development in Asian martial arts is visible today primarily through strong martial art traditions.

Of all the Asian martial art traditions, the most valuable relate to character development. These traditions teach concepts and attitudes such as justice, mercy, courage, kindness, courtesy, honesty, duty, loyalty, honor, obligation, responsibility, self- control, perseverance, respect for others, respect for parents, and respect for teachers. Some feel that the martial arts would be better off without these "peripheral" traditions ("let's just get down to crashin'-and-bashin'"), and considering how other martial traditions have been abused in the West, you can see their point.

For example, the requirement by many instructors to be addressed as "master" – or any other honorific title – is offensive to many American students. It is not so much the addressing of someone as "master" that is particularly offensive, as it is the  requirement to do so. In our culture, respect, honor, and loyalty are things that are earned, not demanded. Moreover, in any country – certainly in an affluent one – a martial art teacher will very likely have students whose skills in their fields of expertise and professions far exceed his own skill in the art. How many instructors have attorneys, physicians, engineers and other professionals as students? Who, then, addresses whom as master?

In the West, true masters are seldom addressed as "master." Such individuals may be described as a masters of eminent skill, but with few exceptions, addressing one as "master" is considered pretentious and generally bad form. Setting aside such examples of tradition-abuse, there remain some very compelling reasons for maintaining the character-building traditions inherent in the martial arts.



Perhaps the best reason for keeping these moral maxims is the fact that  where there are no positive traditions, negative ones appear. This is always the case. Look at the natural world. On fertile ground, in the absence of welcome vegetation, weeds all too quickly appear. (Weeds, rather than grass, are always the first to fill the bare spots in a lawn.) The social parallel of this is found in Western boxing and wrestling. Lacking positive, character-building traditions of their own, Western martial arts have adopted a host of negative ones – especially in the professional ranks.

In professional wrestling, verbal abuse and public character assassination are the norm. These personal attacks are many times more vicious than the physical abuse the combatants inflict on each other in the ring. It matters not that none of this is taken seriously; it has, nevertheless, become a full-fledged Western martial art tradition.

Professional boxing is little better. The success of a fight – at least in financial terms – is measured as much by the verbal jabs and blows each fighter lands in the days and weeks preceding the fight as it is by the contest itself. Movie-goers will recall that the entire  Rocky series is staged with exactly this type of hype and personal conduct as the backdrop – hardly professional.

World Wrestling Federation Interview


Training Versus Teaching —
The Instructor's Duty

Former heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson is a superbly trained fighter, and like many fight fans, I enjoy watching this mauling machine destroy his opponents in the ring. However, his conduct outside the ring (and not just in the criminal case that sent him to prison) suggests that his training did little to prepare him for life. This is the biggest shortcoming of modern Western martial art training. In the next century, sociologists studying this issue may point to some deep cultural and social differences as the cause for this state of affairs in Western martial arts, but I think the answer is much simpler than some exhausting doctoral thesis might conclude. I believe that in Western martial arts we have too many coaches, too many trainers, and too many managers – but far too few "teachers."

Trainers, as good as they are, only impart and sharpen skills; they  train. Teachers, on the other hand, bestow much, much more than just physical skill. Let me show you what I mean.

When an individual attends college or university, often there is the assumption that he will receive training. I entered college after eighteen years in the work force. I remember thinking, "OK, I'll go to college and get a degree that says I can do what I am already doing." However, if the institution lives up to its mission (as mine did), then the student receives far more than just training; he receives an education.; This is the major difference between a trade school and a college or university. In trade school, you receive training; in college, you receive an education. This highlights exactly the difference between trainers and teachers. Trainers and coaches train. Teachers also train, but, equally important, they educate.

Education is very different from training. The formal definitions of "education" and "training," as stated by Webster's make this clear. Training means, to make proficient by instruction and practice, as in some art, profession, or work. Education, on the other hand, is much more comprehensive. It is the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.

For all of the training the martial artist may acquire, his goal and that of his instructor should be education. Education is wrought at the hands of a capable and thorough teacher; not simply a trainer or coach. The teacher educates, preparing the student for life; the trainer does not. For example, you may be trained in the use of weapons and still not be trusted with them. Training develops primarily technical proficiency. Likewise, education develops proficiency, but education also cultivates the powers of reason and judgment necessary for the martial artist to discern when, and when not, to use the weapons he has so worked so hard to develop.


Training Versus Study —
The Student's Responsibility

Throughout this book, I use the terms "training" and "study," with an emphasis on study. The terms are not completely synonymous. Training is both physical and mental. It prepares and conditions the body and mind to adapt, overcome, and endure, until eventually the two come together as a unit, working toward a common goal or purpose. But training is only one component of martial art "study." Study includes training; indeed, in the martial arts, study without training is simply intellectual pursuit. (The world abounds with those whose only physical conditioning is that of their tongues, for they talk endlessly about every aspect of the martial arts "talking the talk," without ever "walking the walk.")

Study involves sweat; yea, it demands it, for study goes well beyond simple training. Study develops and matures the emotional, intellectual, and spiritual dimensions of the martial artist. This raises the question, "What does the martial artist study?" As part of the mind-body pursuit, martial art study should include an investigation of other arts, even if only through review of available literature. You can spend a lifetime mastering one art, so finding time to train and study in more than one is difficult, but you should at least make time to read about other arts. How else can you comment intelligently on such things as why aikido's founder, Morihei Ueshiba, felt that aikido is an "art of reconciliation"? After reading about aikido and its founder, you might conclude that the reason Ueshiba made such statements was that he was an already highly skilled and accomplished martial artist. As such, it was easy for him to advocate nonviolence, because he did so from a position of considerable strength. Now, whether or not you agree with this conclusion is unimportant here. The point is that you should attempt to learn something about other arts, their histories, and their founders.


Cultural Understanding

High on the list of things the serious martial artist explores as part of his study is the cultural background of the martial arts. Cultural study of any kind benefits us in many ways: it opens our minds to different ways of thinking and broadens our view of the world. But this "cultural study" is neither immersion into another culture out of some academic motivation, nor is it an exercise in self-improvement. Rather, it is pragmatic recognition of the fact that knowing something of an art's cultural roots is key to understanding that art's fighting techniques. Moreover, since we do not train to fight only those skilled in our art, knowledge of other arts is equally important.

Given that few of us have the opportunity to study and train in the East for a period of time sufficient to absorb the culture, one way to learn something about the culture that spawned an art is by studying its traditions. A martial art's traditions and practices are very often external manifestations of that art's cultural roots. They offer us, therefore, insight into the parent culture. But there are still other reasons why, as a martial artist, you should know more about martial art traditions – even if you do not buy into them all.

Since practically every Asian art has some traditions, it is important to at least understand them, because one way or another, the culture – through the traditions – will influence both your study and, in the long term, your life. Whether you welcome this influence or oppose it, your ability to accept or reject it intelligently and successfully is directly related to the degree to which you understand it. Welcoming martial traditions without some understanding of their origins and purpose, can, to put it kindly, make the practitioner appear completely out of touch with reality. Rejecting traditions without a similar understanding displays gross ignorance. Allow me to illustrate.

The student of a Japanese art who abuses the word ose, (sounds like ghost) does not fully understand the word, either literally or figuratively. Ose is a Japanese word of many meanings, but it is most often used in response to the word, command, or instruction of an honorable person. However, I heard it used at dinner after a seminar when everything the guest teacher said was answered by more than one participant with, "Ose" (as though it were an Amen). In the United States Marine Corps, the appropriate response to an order is an "aye, aye sir," but outside that environment such a response is completely inappropriate. This is a small linguistic matter, I know, but it exemplifies the type of situation where better knowledge of culture and tradition is helpful.

Cultural and traditional knowledge are also important if the martial artist expects to grow in a variety of arts. For example, in Indonesia, some teachers traditionally ask prospective students if they wish to train with them. There, petitioning the teacher is considered by them to be in poor taste. Many Chinese teachers, on the other hand, would not consider asking even the most talented and promising young man if he would like to train with them. There, the prospective student is expected to petition the teacher continually and persistently, proving his humility, dedication, and worthiness by his importunity. Beyond this, there are still other cultures where formal letters of introduction are required. Without them, one is treated politely, but is also told (politely) to "get lost." This is not to say that one tradition or another is good or bad, or any better or worse than another – just different. Ignorance of another culture, then, can cost you a valuable training opportunity.

Knowledge of the various cultural and martial traditions is also important if you wish to avoid offense. How many students at seminars stand before the guest instructor with their arms crossed in front of them? In many cultures this is a sign of disrespect. Graciously, most Asian seminar teachers assume the student is ignorant of the significance of his action, but their noting it in the first place indicates that it bothers them nonetheless. Some may rightfully argue that the individuals in question are in this country now, and "when in Rome" (or America), they (the seminar instructors) should "do as the Romans do." I cannot fault anyone for feeling this way. I have often felt exactly that way myself. But consider this. The mature martial artist makes every attempt to live in harmony with all those around him, and if a little knowledge and courtesy avert offense, then the martial artist should be the first one in line to demonstrate both. Besides, you will probably learn much more from someone who enjoys you as a student than from someone who is offended (though tolerant).

Applying all this to the "care and feeding" of American martial artists means actively requiring the student to seek knowledge of other arts and their cultural origins, outside his own school. Maintaining a school martial art library is an excellent way to begin. As part of our training program, and beginning with the second belt, each student is required to research and report on various martial arts: Japanese, Okinawan, Korean, Chinese, Filipino, Indonesian, and so on.1 Information for these papers can be obtained from various public and academic libraries, as well as through personal interviews with teachers of different arts. We do this to see that the student becomes knowledgeable in the origins of, philosophies of, and similarities and differences between the various systems, styles, and arts. Such exposure of students to other arts is a practice that some instructors might find threatening, for fear that they might lose a student to another school (an understandable concern for one who makes his living teaching martial arts). However, the rationale should be that if any student would be happier in another school, studying another art, then he or she should pursue that art.

More important, the exposure to other arts encourages the student to be open-minded and learn – as Dan Inosanto says, "to absorb what is useful." Should the student be interested in competitive events, such exposure prepares him for the day when he, as a black belt, is asked to judge or officiate at tournament. Too many new black belts are uncomfortable the first time they judge a competition, simply because they are unfamiliar with what they are looking at and what they are supposed to be looking for. As a tournament judge, you need not be familiar with a particular pattern or form in another art or system, but you should know something of what an art teaches and why. Such knowledge better qualifies the individual to evaluate the competitors' performance.

Knowing what an art teaches means being familiar with some of the differences in stances between this art and that. For example, in each of the major arts or styles a forward or front stance has some subtle, and some not-so-subtle, differences in both posture and use. The same variation from system to system also manifests itself in the way the blocks and strikes are used and delivered. Knowledge of these differences is indispensable when judging competition (not to mention in evaluating other arts for the purpose of absorbing what is useful).


Questionable Traditions

I would be lying to you and untrue to myself if I stopped here. This chapter's third paragraph opens with the statement, "Of all the Eastern martial art traditions, the most valuable ones relate to character development." The statement implies that there are other-than-best traditions inherent in Eastern martial arts as well. Does this implication mean that I feel that there are traditions we should do away with? Simply put, yes – at least, they should be modified, either in practice, meaning, or explanation.

Martial artists are some of the busiest people in the world. Most of us spend many hours working a full-time job or profession or receiving an education. Some do both. Add to this load familial obligations, and it surprises me how many of us still find time to train. The stress and requirements placed on us by today's "leaner and meaner" work environment makes training even more difficult. America, I am afraid, is going the way of Japan in this regard. By this I mean that in Japan, martial art study and training appear to be on the decline. Heavy work responsibilities take such a huge chunk out of the individual's day that few are willing to dedicate what free time they have left to such a demanding mistress. So, how does the martial art instructor or school help remedy this? How can we help those wanting to study martial arts make the most of their limited training time – getting the most bang for their bucks?

Language Studies
Long ago, Ed Parker did what was, up to that time, unthinkable. He decided to teach using the host country's common tongue (in the United States, this means English). His bold innovations and insights into the American psyche made his system of American kenpo an instant hit with self-defense enthusiasts everywhere. (It also made him anathema to more than a few classical teachers.)

For those interested in learning another language and culture, martial art study provides an excellent opportunity. Also, for those interested in international competition, learning a common vocabulary makes sense. But for the busy American student, using English terminology makes more sense. The following analogy illustrates my point.

Recall what it was like when you learned to drive a car. Imagine, now, that your parents had a Volkswagen (for some, imagination here is really unnecessary). Now imagine that you are required to learn the names of all of the components in your automobile in German (a Volkswagen is, after all, a German car). Your driving instructor will also be using German terms, as will the examiner who will test you when you apply for your license. As if that were not enough, you will also have to memorize these terms and use them when you teach others to drive. Terms like, gaspedal, kupplung, bremse, blinker, lenkrad, schaltknppel.2 Such a challenge might be interesting and even educational; however, it will do nothing to help you learn to drive the vehicle any sooner or more safely. If anything, it will slow your progress considerably.

Where's the BREMSEE! (German for 'brake' Likewise, learning a martial art while having to learn a foreign language slows, rather than simplifies, the student's progress. I am not advocating condensed or accelerated training – far from it. However, I remain steadfastly in favor of making the most of our increasingly limited and valuable training time. If you (as a student) are paying for martial art instruction, then you deserve "martial art instruction." If you want foreign language instruction, you can get that elsewhere. Language studies are actually better pursued elsewhere – at a college, university, or with a private tutor. There, much more than just the smallest subset of the language is taught. And in reality, most of the language skills we acquire in the typical karate school will do little to help us locate a telephone, restaurant, hotel, a bathroom, or emergency assistance in the country of origin anyway; and the possibility of engaging in meaningful conversation is even more remote.

Finally, since all languages have nuances and shades of meaning, concepts transmitted in a foreign language can easily remain hidden to the student. Some might argue that the martial artist should study and pursue the deeper meaning of the new (foreign) terms, but within the context of maximizing training time, this argument is counterproductive. Also, the student is much less likely to receive correct coaching in grammar, usage, and pronunciation when learning from someone other than a qualified language instructor even if he calls himself "master." How often have I mispronounced this word or that, only to learn the correct pronunciation later and think how dumb I must have sounded.

But school language is only one questionable tradition. Its biggest failing is that it draws from our already limited training time. There are, however, traditions that are questionable for other less obvious reasons. Consider, for example, the practice of bowing.

In many schools, students and instructors alike bow before entering or leaving the training area. This is usually done as a sign of respect for a place of learning. In most schools, the students and instructors bow to each other as a sign of mutual respect. In some schools, there is even bowing before the American flag and often before the flag of the country from which the art or instructor came as well. Finally, there are a few schools where it is customary to bow before a school shrine or altar. For a number of Western students, some of these practices are offensive. For a few, they are expressly prohibited.

Mutual Respect
Bowing is not foreign to Western culture. Historically, bowing has been used to demonstrate an attitude of respect, reverence, submission, salutation, recognition, and worship. Bowing as a sign of mutual respect has been practiced in the West for centuries. European gentlemen bowed to each other this way. Moreover, even in Western countries, bowing before a monarch is a required sign of courtesy, respect for, or submission to, regal authority. In the United States, bowing is rather uncommon today, but respect is still displayed. Men, for example, remove their hats when entering a courtroom, and everyone rises when the judge enters. We also rise when our president enters the room or when our national anthem is played. Before the feminist movement, men generally rose when a lady entered the room as well. All of these are signs of respect.

Bowing to fellow practitioners as a sign of mutual respect (and I stress the word "mutual") is an acceptable martial art tradition for two of reasons. First, because bowing to our fellows – both juniors and seniors – acknowledges our bond as brothers in the art. Ours is a difficult and challenging path, and one that very few choose to follow. Those who do deserve our respect. Doubtless we will not always like our fellow travelers, but we must acknowledge their dedication to the arts we both love.

The second reason may sound a bit primal, but it is a fact that fighting invariably bonds us together (at least it does the masculine gender). Be it schoolyard fisticuffs or actual wartime combat, whether fighting for the same cause or fighting against each other, respect and friendship often grow from the experience. For example, most men can remember fighting this kid or that in school. Most can recall every significant "battle." Curiously, win or lose, more often than not the combatants came away with more respect for the other than when they began. Often friendships grew from this fertile ground of mutual respect. And this bonding doesn't appear to diminish with age.

Those who have survived the brutality of war often describe similar experiences (the higher stakes only increase the bond). Combat often breeds both lifelong friendship and respect: friendship for our compatriots and respect (albeit grudgingly) for our enemies. Our training in martial arts – because they are martial – falls somewhere between these childhood and actual combat experiences. Whether we are pushing ourselves to our physical and mental limits, testing each other, or helping fellow students to achieve their best, bowing in mutual respect seems a natural extension of this almost primal bond, and one that in martial art training occurs without anyone ever having to become your enemy.

My Master?
As fellow students of the art we bow to each other. As students it is also reasonable for us to bow to our teachers. In so doing we acknowledge their skill and mastery of the art that they share with us. But here again, the act is mutual – the teacher also bows to the student. "What?!" the martial art instructor might ask, "Bow to my students?" Absolutely.

Historically, in the East students often had to petition the teacher simply for the privilege of training with him. They had to prove their worthiness to become pupils. In some cultures this is still the case. However, in the United States, students do not normally petition martial art instructors for long periods of time, seeking admission into their schools. Teaching to make a living has pretty well eliminated this practice. Since there is, therefore, mutual need – the teacher needs students as much as students desire to learn – shouldn't the respect, likewise, be mutual?

Bowing to my Master?

Some, it seems, do not think so, for too many instructors still behave as if their skill in martial arts grants them special status. This kind of thinking is flawed, however, because mastery over an individual in the field of martial arts in no way presupposes mastery in all or any of the other areas of life. (In fairness, I have witnessed this behavior more from culturally American "masters" than I have from Asian ones.) I know, for example, one American instructor who demands that his students call him "MASTER So-n-so." Even his students' parents refer to him as "MASTER So-n-so." (The emphasis on the "master" here is not mine, but the students' and their parents.) I'm not just talking about their calling him "master" in the school. No these folks are conditioned to speak of him as "master" and to introduce him as such to their friends – wherever they may happen to be.

A good friend of mine and fellow martial artist also refers to his teacher (an Asian instructor) as "my master." My friend is a practicing attorney with a doctorate in law. He has worked as long and as hard for his degrees in law as "his master" has for his martial art credentials, yet to my knowledge no one calls my friend "master." His employees don't, his children don't, and I'll wager that his wife wouldn't be caught dead calling him "my master" either. It is incredible to me that Americans, whose forefathers fought for independence, emancipation, and equality, so willingly acknowledge anyone as their master.

The teacher who demands that his students address him as master or bow to him as one who is their master goes too far. Such traditions neither demonstrate nor breed positive character traits – least of all, humility. On the other hand, the teacher who bows to his students in mutual respect recognizes and acknowledges the fact that his students honor him by choosing to train and study in his school. (They can just as easily train elsewhere.) Mutual need, mutual desire, and mutual respect: These should set the tone and spirit for following this traditional Eastern practice. Not some imagined superiority.

Bowing Before National Ensigns
Bowing before the American flag is an acceptable practice because it shows respect for and submission to national authority – authority that (in our country) "we the people" have granted to our government on our behalf. In the past, respect for our flag was something everyone was taught to show. Beginning in elementary school, we were taught our pledge of allegiance and the words to our national anthem. At the playing of our national anthem, we would stand, place our hands over our hearts, and face our flag. This we did as a sign of respect, allegiance, and rightful submission to the nation our flag so proudly represents. Sadly, this kind of training seems to be lacking today, for fewer and fewer young people demonstrate either the knowledge of this practice or the willingness to embrace it. Bowing before our national ensign, then, is a welcome tradition. Granted, it's not exactly the same as standing with one's hand over one's heart, but the position here is less important than the purpose. However, bowing before another nation's flag, even if out of respect for the nation that now shares her national arts with us, raises some interesting questions.

Bowing before school flags

So we bow before the American flag for the reasons stated, but do we bow before, say, the Korean flag with the same intent: respect, submission, and allegiance? Respect, perhaps, but submission and allegiance? No. Respect for our own country and submission to the leaders we elect to govern us is one tradition we willingly accept – we should, we fought for it. However, it is inappropriate for us to rise and stand with our hands over our hearts in respect for the Korean flag or any other ensign. We might stand, perhaps – out of courtesy and to show no disrespect – but not with our hands over our hearts, which goes a step further to symbolize allegiance.

Likewise, bowing which signifies either submission or allegiance is inappropriate. Bowing from any position – seated, kneeling, prone, or standing – goes beyond merely showing respect for it suggests subordination, obeisance, or homage. For this reason, I find bowing before another nation's ensign more objectionable than bowing before my fellow man.

Bowing Before the School Shrine
Followers of some religions and faiths see bowing before a school altar or shrine as an act of obeisance or homage to some spiritual leader or guide. For the practicing Muslim, Jew, or Christian, such a practice is forbidden. For these students training in a school where bowing before a shrine is required, while abstaining from what is, for them, a prohibited practice might subject them to peer pressure to conform or comply. Case in point: one student in an aikido school assumed that bowing before the school altar (one that had an individual's picture on it) was simply an act of respect for the teacher's teacher. This was not particularly troubling to him, so he went along with it. Later, he found out that the individual's picture on the altar was his instructor's spiritual teacher, the Reverend Sun Myung Moon, the founder and supposed "real Messiah" of the Unification Church. In the student's eyes, this was intolerable!

To the  non-practicing Muslim, Jew, or Christian, these Asian martial art traditions may seem insignificant, but the instructor of any school should be aware of any potential for offense in the traditional Eastern practices he incorporates as part of his curriculum or identity. If Western students are expected to make every effort to understand Eastern culture and tradition, it seems only reasonable that teachers of Eastern arts do likewise.

Bowing before school shrine

After saying all of this, I still disagree with those who would ban all traditional Eastern practices from our martial art study. There are ways to balance both Eastern tradition and Western culture. For example, in our school we bow as part of starting and ending class. Like many of the more informal Chinese salutations, our bow is a standing salute. It is not a bow of submission, obeisance, or homage. Rather, it is like an officer returning the salute of enlisted men. With the words "Attention" and "Salute," the teacher shows his respect for his students – they honor him by choosing to study and train with him. The students, in return, echo their respect for the teacher as a worthy instructor and fellow student himself. It is, quite simply, mutual respect. In this way we maintain a tie with our arts' Asian roots, while adapting it to the culture in which we live.


Abandon Them All?

In this chapter I have pointed out several traditions we should maintain, one that we should eliminate, and one that needs to be considered carefully. We see that where no traditions exist, others spring up and fill the void. Inevitably, the new practices that spring up eventually become traditions. As such, they may be good, or they may turn out to be bad. Sadly, Western experience in this area has not been good.

The traditions found in Western boxing and wrestling (at least in the professional ranks) are negative, rather than positive. These "arts" do not build character, they destroy it. With this experience so close to home, it is the irresponsible instructor who leaves character building to chance. We cannot excuse ourselves with "I only taught my student how to hurt someone. What he does with the skills that I gave him is not my concern." A trainer might say that, but a never a teacher.

Martial art instructors must be more than just trainers and coaches; we must be teachers and educators. Without spending a lot of time indoctrinating our students in another cultural life-style, culturally American instructors are obligated to give their students what the majority of them are asking for (and paying for) – good martial art skills. But we must also equip them with the skills necessary for developing their powers of reason and judgment – skills that prepare them for life as mature martial artists and contributing members of society.


  1. These papers are not graded, critiqued, or evaluated on grammar or literary skill; not everyone has equal writing abilities. What we look for is content.
    [Return to reference point]
  2. Accelerator, clutch, brake, turn indicator, steering wheel, and gearshift.
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Our  emphasis  is  on  the  practical.
©Copyright Bob Orlando, 1993-2016
All rights reserved.
Last update:  Aug. 6, 2016
by Bob Orlando
Web Site of Bob Orlando: Instructor in Kuntao-Silat (Chinese kuntao and Dutch-Indonesian pukulan pentjak silat) and author of "Indonesian Fighting Fundamentals"; "Fighting Arts of Indonesia," "Reflex Action," "Fighting Footwork of Kuntao and Silat," "The Fighting Forms of Kuntao-Silat"videos; and "Martial Arts America: A Western Approach to Eastern Arts," offering martial arts instruction to adults living in throughout the Denver metropolitan area including, Lakewood, Littleton, Morrison, and Golden Colorado.